Genetic identification – Methodology
The techniqueThe genetic identification of an organism is based on the analysis of its DNA, in particular of those DNA regions that are unique of a particular species thus permitting to distinguish it from all others (the so-called DNA marker or genetic marker).
Nowadays scientific and technological innovation allows to perform DNA analysis on every kind of organism and even from tiny amount of tissue like a feather or a small leaf. The genetic markers that are adopted may be universal, that is to say present in every living organism and they are called “DNA Barcode marker” or the genetic markers can be customized and unique of a species and in this case they are named “DNA Fingerprint marker”.
DNA Barcording allows the identification of a species and its traceability along the production chain through the analysis of one or few DNA regions at species level and variable among different species (DNA Barcode marker).This technique was first developed by the Canadian scientist Paul Hebert in 2003; for over 10 years FEM2-Ambiente has been adopting and fostering this kind of analysis becoming in cooperation with the University of Milano-Bicocca, one important node of the International Consortium for the Barcode of Life(CBOL). Through the reading of the sequence of a DNA barcode marker and its bioinformatics analysis, it’s possible to uniquely identify the species of the tested sample. An indisputable result is guarantee by the universality of the method and by the availability of molecular databases used as reference; the database used are both international (BOLD, GenBank, Fish Bold, etc.) and also developed by FEM2-Ambiente
DNA fingerprinting involves the study of variable or hypervariable region within the genome of the target organism to select the most suitable markers in order to obtain an unique characterization.
This technique is applicable to examine cultivars, breed and species that cannot be identified by DNA barcoding.
FEM2-Ambiente has extensive experience in this kind of technique both using taxa specific markers (microsatellites and SNPs) and with universal markers linked to orders, families and genres.Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)